Low FODMAP Diet For Vegans
The low FODMAP diet is a dietary approach developed by Monash University to improve the symptoms of people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
The diet limits foods that have been shown to aggravate the gut and cause IBS symptoms including intestinal bloating, gas and pain. These gut-aggravating foods are a high in a group of sugars called FODMAPs.
Following the low FODMAP diet has been shown to improve the symptoms of 3 in 4 individuals suffering from IBS symptoms.
In this article we take a deep dive into a Vegan Low FODMAP diet and what foods you should include and avoid.
What are FODMAPS?
FODMAP is an acronym describing a group of short-chain carbohydrates (or sugars). These are found both in food and as food additives.
FODMAPs are quickly fermented by healthy bacteria that reside within your intestines.
When these are fermented, they pull more water into your gut, which cause gas (hydrogen and methane) to be produced. This can also cause bloating and distention and impact the way muscles in your gut contract.
As a result, you can experience symptoms of wind, abdominal bloating, diarrhoea and constipation.
What does FODMAP stand for?
F – Fermentable
Process through which gut bacteria ferment undigested carbohydrate to produce gases
O – Oligosaccharides
Fructans & GOS – found in foods such as wheat, shallots, barley, inulin, rye, onions, garlic and legumes/pulses (chickpeas, lentils, kidney beans).
D – Disaccharides
Lactose – found in dairy products like milk, soft cheeses and yogurts.
M – Monosacchardines
Fructose – found in honey, apples, high fructose corn syrups, mango, pear and watermelon.
P – Polyols
Sorbitol & Mannitol – Found in apples, apricots, nectarines, pears, plums, prunes, mushrooms, sorbitol (420), mannitol (421), xylitol (967), maltitol (965) and isomalt (953).
How does the diet work?
The low FODMAP diet is recommended to be followed under the supervision of a qualified dietitian who has experience in the specialised area. The diet has three main phases:
Phase 1: Elimination Phase
The diet begins with an “elimination phase” – a two to six week period of high restriction where FODMAP-containing foods are reduced and eliminated in the diet.
Phase 2: Challenge Phase
The “challenge phase” is where FODMAPs are gradually reintroduced and challenged whilst the baseline low FODMAP diet is maintained. This helps to identify which FODMAPs you have a reaction to.
Phase 3: Liberation Phase
Using your results from the challenge phase, a gut health specialist dietitian will help to design your new diet. This would include a mixture of low and high fodmap foods and provide you with recommendations of what to do with foods you had a negative reaction to. The dietitian may also prescribe specific prebiotics or probiotics for you to take.
I don’t have IBS, should I do the low FODMAP diet?
It is important to seek out a definitive diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. This can be done through your General Practitioner or Gastroenterologist. .
This helps to rule out functional gut disorders such as Coeliac Disease, Ulcerative Colitis and Chrons Disease. These conditions may also present with similar symptoms as IBS.
This process may require you to have a series of blood and/or stool test.
It is essential to rule out other conditions as undiagnosed, there may be serious, long term health consequences.
Consequences of the LOW FODMAP Diet
There can be negative consequences of following a vegan low FODMAP diet.
Firstly, the low FODMAP diet is very restrictive in nature. This is accentuated on vegan diets as almost all vegan foods contain fodmaps.
Legumes, a popular vegan protein source is very high in FODMAPs. Legumes are found in chickpeas, lentils, kidney beans, black beans and canellini beans.
Per meal, vegans should aim for 1 cup of legumes to meet their protein needs. Unfortunately a portion of FODMAP is only 1/4 cup of legumes, or 1/2 cup of canned lentils.
Vegans need to be additionally aware of meeting their protein needs when following a low FODMAP diet and opt for low FODMAP vegan protein sources such as tofu, tempeh, walnuts, peanuts and protein powder.
Following a low FODMAP vegan diet may place you at increased risk of nutritional deficiencies. Particular nutrients to be aware of include iron, zinc and calcium.
My Symptoms Are Improving, Should I Stay On The Diet?
No. It is important to complete the three phases of the diet and reintroduce FODMAPs.
FODMAPs are essential for good gut health They contain prebiotics, a fuel source for our good gut bacteria. This helps to produce short-chain fatty acids which have a wealth of health benefits.
Recent research has shown that following a strict low FODMAP diet for a long period of time can reduce levels of certain beneficial bacteria in the gut.
The goal of the low FODMAP diet is to improve the health your gut by giving your gut time to rest, then, to reintroduce certain foods back into your diet over a controlled period of time. We only recommend the diet to be followed for 2 – 6 weeks due to it’s restrictive nature. It is especially important to complete the diet (elimination and challenge phases) as a vegan, as the diet cuts out a lot of food if you are following both dietary patterns. This may put you at risk for deficiencies of certain nutrients (it also gets very boring).
Can I follow the low FODMAP diet as a vegan?
As FODMAPs are only found in plant-based food (besides lactose), this can make the low FODMAP diet particularly difficult to complete whilst also following vegan diet. Yes it can definitely be done, but be warned that the it will reduce the variety of foods you are eating and you may find yourself getting bored quite easily. This reinforces the importance of completing the reintroduction challenge phase of the diet.
Low FODMAP Vegan Foods
Egg alternatives: flax-egg, chia-egg.
Milk alternative: soy milk (made from soy protein e.g. santarium), macadamia milk, almond milk, rice milk
Fruit: rockmelon, grapes, green banana, strawberries, orange, kiwi fruit, mandarin, pineapple, honeydew melon, passionfruit, raspberries.
Vegetables: eggplant, green beans, bok choy, capsicum, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, potato, tomato, zucchini, kale, spinach, choy sum, lettuce, chinese cabbage, Jap (kent) pumpkin.
Grains: corn flakes, oats, quinoa flakes, quinoa, rice, corn pasta, rice cakes, sourdough spelt bread, wheat/rye/barley free breads, millet, bean thread noodle, polenta, buckwheat pasta, gluten-free pasta (made from rice, potato, corn)
Proteins: firm tofu, tempeh, red kidney beans (up to 1/2 cup), brown lentils (up to 1/2 cup).
Nuts & seeds: sunflower seeds, chia seed, flax seed, pumpkin seed, brazil nuts, macadamia, peanuts, walnuts.
Condiments: dark chocolate, maple syrup, table sugar, rice malt syrup, soy sauce, vinegar, coconut milk, lemon juice, fresh herbs, dried spices.
Drinks: cacao powder hot chocolate, peppermint tea, white or black or green tea, water.
Low FODMAP Vegan Meal Plan
2 slices of gluten free toast with peanut butter + 1/3 of a banana, sliced
Smoothie: 1 cup of sanitarium so good soy milk or almond milk + 40g brown rice protein + 1 cup frozen strawberries + 1 tbsp flaxseed + 1 tbsp chia seed + 1 drizzle maple syrup
30g macadamias + 1 orange
6 rice paper rolls made with tofu, alfafa, cucumber, capsicum, carrot and rice noodles
2 ice cakes with 1/8 of avocado + 1/2 tomato, sliced
2 rice cakes with peanut butter + 1/3 banana
Brown rice and tofu stirfry made with 1/2 cup brown canned lentils, 1/2 cup broccoli (heads only), 1/2 cup green beans, 1/4 sliced capsicum, 1/2 bok choy, handful of spinach and soy sauce and sesame oil to dress
Coconut yoghurt with carmens fruit free muesli and 1 kiwi fruit, diced
Top mistakes to avoid:
1. Check your soy milks
Milks made from soy beans are high FODMAP whilst those from soy proteins are low FODMAP.
2. Don’t start a probiotic at the same time
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can lead to health benefits in the gut. There is some evidence that probiotics can help with IBS symptoms, but this may vary depending on which probiotic preparation is used. We recommend that you try one management strategy at a time; commence the low FODMAP diet first. If you have not achieved good symptom control after two to six weeks, consult with your dietitian. At this review-stage, you can discuss other management strategies and the possibility of introducing probiotics.
3. Be ware of meat-alternatives
Vegan meats made with gluten are low in fodmaps (e.g. seitan) , but not those made from soy!
4. Be careful of canned beans!
In canned legumes (lentils and chickpeas) the water-soluble FODMAPs (GOS) leach out of the legume into the brine mixture. So, if you’re eating a low FODMAP diet, make sure that you discard the brine and wash your legumes before use.
What if nothing works?
Not everyone find that the low FODMAP diet improve their symptoms. If you are one of the one in four individuals with IBS that don’t experience any benefit, there are a few other alternative therapies that may be of assistance. This includes probiotics, medication, clinically-trialed herbal preparations (e.g. Iberogast) or gut-directed hypnotherapy.
Following a low FODMAP diet as a vegan is tricky, we get it. Get 1:1 help with the digestive experts on plant-based nutrition at PNW Clinic. Meet our team here.