Plant Based Pregnancy: Safety, Nutrients at Risk, Supplements and Meal Plan

A plant-based diet is one which consists mostly of plant foods – think fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes and wholegrains. For some, this may be a strict vegan diet but for others it may also incorporate some animal products on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. A plant-based pregnancy therefore, can encompasses eating a range of different dietary patterns along this plant-based spectrum throughout your pregnancy journey.   


Is A Plant Based Pregnancy Safe? 

In short, yes! In fact, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics state:

“…appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation…” 

Not only is following a plant-based diet during pregnancy safe, but there are also some potential benefits to eating more plants during pregnancy backed up by research such as:

  • High fibre intake associated with a plant-based diet reduces risk of constipation which is a common side-effect during pregnancy 
  • Reduced risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
  • Promoting healthy weight gain during pregnancy (excessive weight gain increases risk of GDM, pre-eclampsia, birth complications, miscarriage, childhood obesity) 
  • Decreased risk of your future child developing chronic conditions later in life 
  • Potential reduced risk of asthma and eczema in your future child 
  • Emerging research suggests role of a plant-based diet in lowering incidence of post-natal depression 

However, emphasis should be placed on “appropriately planned” as there are a few key nutrients during pregnancy which are harder to get from plants alone.

This is especially important as not getting enough of these essential nutrients can impair the growth and development of your unborn child negating any of the potential benefits a plant-based diet provides. 


Luckily, with some careful planning and the guidance of a plant based pregnancy dietitian, it is possible to meet all your nutritional needs on a plant-based diet to ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby.


Key nutrients for a plant-based pregnancy 

pregnancy nutrients vegan


Protein is a critical nutrient during pregnancy to support the growth of a healthy baby as protein is an essential building block for growing all of your baby’s tissues and organs. It also plays an important role in the development of your own uterine tissue to help support a healthy pregnancy. 

Sources: Tofu, tempeh, beans and legumes, textured vegetable protein, pulse pasta, and to a lesser extent nuts and seeds 


Omega 3:

Omega 3s play a critical role in promoting healthy development of infants, in particular their brain and eye development and function. Plus, intake has also been linked to promoting a normal length of gestation and even preventing perinatal depression.

Sources: Chia seeds, flax seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts



Plays an essential role in many crucial foetal developmental processes including DNA synthesis, cell growth and nervous system development. Inadequate intake during pregnancy significantly increases risk of your baby developing neural tube defects. 

Sources: Spinach, kale, broccoli, asparagus, avocado, orange, banana, strawberries, chickpeas, sunflower seeds, vegemite, bread (except organic and gluten free varieties) and fortified cereals 



Plays an important role in foetal brain and nervous system development. Low choline intakes during pregnancy have also been linked to an increased risk of neural tube defects.  

Sources: Red kidney beans, chickpeas, soymilk, tofu, quinoa, broccoli, brussel sprouts, shitake mushrooms 


The body’s demand for iron increases dramatically during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy to accommodate an increase in blood volume that occurs. Iron is also vital for the growth and development of your baby and low iron status during pregnancy increases risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery as well as post-partum haemorrhages. We recommend optimising your iron stores pre-conception and during the first trimester to help account for this significant increase in requirements.

Sources: Tofu, legumes (e.g. red kidney beans, chickpeas, lentils, baked beans), wholegrains (e.g. amaranth, brown rice, oats, quinoa, grain bread), nuts/seeds (e.g. pumpkin, sesame, hemp and chia seeds, cashews, some vegetables (e.g. spinach, kale, beet greens and white potato) and fortified products


Plays a critical role in the development of your baby’s brain and poor intake during pregnancy has been linked to poorer cognitive performance and lower IQs in children. 

Sources: iodised salt, bread (except organic and gluten free varieties), nori
*We recommend avoiding excessive consumption of sea vegetables such as boiled seaweed and kelp products as they can contain very high levels of iodine which exceed safe levels of intake. 



During pregnancy, calcium is an essential building block for developing bones and teeth and also assists in nerve function and normalizing your baby’s heartbeat. There is also some evidence linking inadequate calcium intake during pregnancy to an increased risk of developing pre-eclampsia.

Sources: Fortified plant-based milk, cheese and yoghurt*, calcium set tofu, edamame, baked beans, kale, Asian greens, chia seeds, almonds, sesame seeds and tahini 

*Note – Not all plant-based dairy alternatives are fortified with calcium

brazil nuts are important for a plant based, vegan and vegetarian pregnancy


Maternal selenium intake during the first trimester of pregnancy has been linked to language and motor skill development in offspring and also plays and important role in thyroid hormone development.
Sources: Brazil nuts, wholegrain bread, baked beans, lentils, cashews


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for foetal bone formation which starts in utero. This is important as infants born with lower bone density or improper bone formation are at greater risk of developing Rickets and skeletal deformities.

Sources: Small amounts are found in some plant-based products such as milks and margarines however, it is unlikely you will be able to meet your requirements from food alone. 10-20 minutes per day of sun exposure is the most efficient way for our bodies to get vitamin D however, there are many factors which can impact this. 

Vitamin B12

During pregnancy, Vitamin B12 is required for cognitive neurodevelopmental processes and adequate intake is also associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects.

Sources: Unfortunately, there are no reliable plant-based sources of Vitamin B12. There are some plant-based products (e.g. plant-based milks and meat substitutes) which may be fortified with B12; however, due to variable vitamin content and low absorption rates by the body, these foods should not be relied on to provide your B12 needs. Because of this, B12 supplementation is essential for all individuals on a plant-based diet. 

supplementation vegan and plant based pregnancy


Whilst as dietitians we usually like to focus on a food first approach, pregnancy is a key  period in which supplementation is highly recommended plant-based or not.

We recommend all mothers to be start on a good quality prenatal (to boost your fertility, this should ideally be started 3 months prior to conception when possible). However, we know that with so many options available on the market, choosing which supplement is right for you is a lot easier said than done.

Not all supplements are made equally and unfortunately, there is no one-size fits all recommendation. There are a variety of factors such as your diet, medical history, family medical history, medications, age, weight and blood work which will influence the nutrients you need and in what amounts.

Plus, it is common for your supplements to change throughout your pregnancy as your nutritional requirements and status also change.

Are you planning to conceive in the next year? Get expert advice from our plant based pregnancy dietitian

Whilst we recommend you speak to a dietitian to help tailor an individualised supplementation regime, there are a few common things to look out for when choosing a prenatal: 

  • Folate: 400-600mcg 
  • Iodine: at least 150mcg (ideally 220mcg)
  • Zinc: 11mg -16.5mg
  • Selenium: 30mcg 
  • Iron: 60mg
  • Vitamin D: 400-1000IU 
  • Other common nutrients you may find in a prenatal include calcium, vitamin C, vitamin E and other B vitamins (e.g. thiamine, niacin, B6). 
  • Avoid prenatal supplements containing vitamin A as these can be harmful whilst pregnant (unless indicated by your doctor/dietitian) 


Alongside your prenatal multivitamin, there are a few other key nutrients you may need to supplement depending on what is covered by your multi and your specific bloodwork and diet patterns. Some of these include: 

  • B12
  • Omega 3 – look for a supplement containing at least 250mg EPA/DHA 
  • Choline 
  • Vitamin B6
  • Additional vitamin D 
  • Additional iron 
  • Probiotic 


It should also be noted that unfortunately not all supplements are vegan. This may be due to the casing or where the nutrients are derived from.

We believe it is up to you and your own values whether or not ensuring your supplements are vegan is important to you. If it is, choosing vegan supplements can be more challenging as it will limit the variety of choices available. However, as plant-based dietitians we can help guide you on some suitable options to help you feel confident that you are getting in all the nutrients you need.

oats are a great plant based pregnancy breakfast

Healthy Plant Based Pregnancy Meal Plan 

Breakfast: Porridge or overnight oats
½ cup oats + 1tbsp ground flaxseeds + 1 cup calcium fortified soy milk
Serve with 1 cup mixed berries + 1tbsp peanut butter + 1 brazil nut chopped
Optional: cinnamon, maple syrup/brown sugar 

Morning snack:
4x grain crackers with
½ cup cannellini beans mashed with ¼ of an avocado and a squeeze of lemon/lime juice 

Lunch: Tofu salad wrap
1 medium/large grain wrap with
150g marinated baked calcium set tofu + 1 cup spinach/kale + ½ cup other salad veg of choice + ¼ of an avocado 

Afternoon snack: Smoothie
½ banana + ¼ cup oats + ½ – 1 cup fruit of choice (berries, mango, pineapple, etc.) + 1tbsp hemp seeds + 1 cup soy milk 

Dahl with 1 cup of cooked lentils + ½ cup wilted spinach/kale + 1 cup mixed vegetables (e.g. broccoli, cauliflower, pumpkin, peas, carrot, zucchini)
Serve with 1 cup of brown rice 

Snack: Trail mix and yoghurt
¼ cup trail mix (mixed nuts, seeds and dried fruit of choice + optional dark chocolate, dried coconut, granola)  
2/3 cup plant-based yoghurt


For more individualised advice on how you can optimise your plant-based diet for fertility you can book in to see our plant based fertility dietitian here. 


This article was written by fertility dietitian Georgia D’Andrea.



Carnitine in Vegan Diets – sources, supplements & deficiency

What is carnitine?

Carnitine is an amino acid that is made up of two other amino acids, methionine and lysine. 

It is a nutrient that is considered conditionally essential. Meaning most of the time our body is able to produce enough endogenously to meet our needs, but in certain circumstances it must come from our food.

Carnitine plays an important role in energy production. It is found predominantly in tissues that use fat as a fuel source such as skeletal and cardiac muscle. 

It transports fatty acids into the mitochondria, which is the powerhouse of the cell, so that the fatty acids can be burned to produce energy. Additionally, carnitine transports compounds out of the mitochondria that would be toxic if it was able to accumulate. 

Carnitine occurs in two forms, known as D and L, that are mirror images of each other. But only L-carnitine is active in the body.


Source of carnitine


Carnitine is predominantly found in animal products including red meat. In fact the general rule of thumb is that the redder the meat, the more carnitine content it has (1).

Although, it is also found in other animal products such as dairy products and fish. Just in much lower quantities. 

There are some plant based sources of carnitine but they are not particularly good sources.

To give you some perspective, adults who have a diet rich in red meat consume around 0.6-1.8g of carnitine daily whilst vegans consume around 0.1g per day (1). 

Are vegans low in carnitine?

Studies have shown that plasma carnitine concentrations (carnitine in the blood), is significantly lower in vegetarians and vegans in comparison to omnivores (2,3). 

Given that the majority of the carnitine in an omnivorous diet comes from red meat, it is likely that we would see the same thing in pescitarians and omnivores who do not eat red meat regularly.

Interestingly, despite having lower blood levels of carnitine, vegetarians and vegans do not have lower muscle stores of carnitine (2,3).   

This is because the body is able to maintain carnitine homeostasis through several mechanisms including producing more carnitine endogenously when there is less coming in through the diet. 

There is also an upregulation in renal conservation mechanisms and thus higher carnitine reabsorption may occur in vegetarians to compensate for the lower carnitine concentrations obtained from the diet (4).

A study was done looking at the effect of creatine and carnitine homeostasis in women who converted to a vegetarian diet from an regular, omnivorous diet for six-months. They found that whilst creatine stores decreased, there was no significant difference in measure of carnitine stores at three & six months (4).


Can you be deficient in carnitine?

As discussed, your body is able to maintain a balance of carnitine stores by upregulating endogenous production and reducing kidney excretion when dietary intake is low.

Your body produces enough carnitine to meet your daily needs and even if levels do fall, the body has mechanisms in place to bring it back to homeostasis. 

A healthy person will rarely suffer from carnitine deficiency. Deficiency usually occurs when some kind of condition is present that affects endogenous carnitine production or carnitine homeostatic mechanisms. 

Primary carnitine deficiency caused by a genetic disorder is usually identified at a young age. Although secondary carnitine deficiency can result later in life due to chronic kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy treatment or long term use of certain antibiotics that reduce carnitine reabsorption or increase excretion (5,6,7). In these cases, supplementation is required.

On the other hand, because carnitine production requires several nutrients that are not created by the body. A poor intake of those particular nutrients can also result in a deficiency even in a healthy person. 

The first couple of key ingredients in carnitine production are lysine and methionine. These are essential amino acids, meaning that we do need to get them from our diet as the body is not able to produce them (8). 

Therefore, if protein intake is very low or someone is in a state of protein deficiency, carnitine deficiency can occur. 

This is also why it is important to have a range of protein sources as someone who is vegan, as most plant based protein sources do not have a complete amino acid profile. 

For example, legumes tend to be low in methionine and grains tend to be low in lysine. So even if you are getting enough protein but it is mostly from legumes, you may not have enough lysine for sufficient carnitine production. 

Carnitine also requires other nutrients in its production including iron, vitamin C and vitamins B3 and B6. So if you are deficient or have a low intake of any of those nutrients, carnitine production will be reduced.

For vegans, low vitamin C intake is rarely an issue due to a generally high fruit and vegetable consumption. However, iron deficiency or low iron stores may predispose some vegans to carnitine deficiency. 

Although iron deficiency anemia is not more common amongst vegans than the wider population, it is still considered a nutrient of concern on a plant based diet (9). 

All in all, as long as a person does not have a medical condition that affects carnitine homeostasis and has a well-balanced and adequate diet, they are not at risk of carnitine deficiency. 


Carnitine Supplementation 

Athletic performance

Carnitine supplementation is typically discussed in the context of sports and athletic performance. Some athletes take carnitine in hopes that it will boost their muscle carnitine stores and assist with energy production in the skeletal muscle. Very similar to what we do see occur with creatine supplementation.

However, twenty years of research has failed to find consistent evidence that carnitine supplementation can improve exercise or physical performance (10,11,12).

Even with greater doses of L-carnitine, supplementation does not result in an improved energy production when exercising nor does it necessarily increase the amount of carnitine in the muscle (11).  

It has even been found that vegetarians are more resistant to storing supplemental carnitine in their muscles in comparison to omnivores.

Vegetarians and likely vegans as well, have a lower muscle carnitine transport capacity than non-vegetarians. Therefore, l-carnitine supplementation is unlikely to have any significant effect on muscle carnitine storage in plant based people. 

Even if it did have some effect on muscle stores, it would still be unlikely to affect muscle function and energy metabolism. 

vegan muscle carnitine

Carnitine & Health Outcomes

Outside of sports and exercise performance, there are some potential applications for carnitine supplementation.

Aging: A meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine may improve mental function and reduce deterioration in older adults experiencing cognitive impairments or alzheimers. This may be due to the importance of carnitine in mitochondrial function (13). Carnitine supplementation in these studies were between 1-3g per day. 

Male infertility: Several studies indicate that carnitine supplementation may improve sperm quality (14). The carnitine content of seminal fluid is actually directly correlated with the sperm count and motility.This likely has something to do with carnitines’ role in energy production. Although a recent randomised control trial found no difference between pre and post carnitine supplementation in sperm quality (15). More research is required in this space. 

Type 2 Diabetes: There is some evidence to suggest that intravenous carnitine supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity and help to regulate blood glucose levels by promptly increasing oxidation (16). One analysis has even shown a potential positive impact on nerve pain in diabetes related neuropathy (17). Although, evidence is not strong enough to make carnitine supplementation part of standardised diabetic care and the potential risks are currently unknown. 

How to take carnitine

Generally, carnitine supplementation is not advised for most people including vegans and vegetarians. 

In certain health conditions, carnitine supplementation may be appropriate but dosages would likely be dependent on the individual person and condition. 

The research is typically done with doses of L-carnitine ranging from 1-6g per day. 

Risks of carnitine supplementation 

Carnitine supplementation does come with some potential risks. 

At doses of 3g or more, carnitine supplementation may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, loose bowel movements and a fishy body odour (18). 

What is more concerning is the research regarding l-carnitine and a possible increase in risk of cardiovascular disease. Research is still emerging but l-carnitine may play a role in the advancement of atherosclerosis. 

The proposed mechanism is that l-carnitine is metabolised by intestinal gut bacteria to form a substance called trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). TMAO has been linked with an increased risk of heart disease but the implications of supplementation or a high dietary intake of carnitine are not well understood (19). 

Closing thoughts

Carnitine supplementation is unlikely to be beneficial for any healthy person, even when it comes to athletic performance. 

Deficiency can occur if there is an inadequate intake of protein, vitamin C, iron, B3 or B6 but this isn’t isolated to vegans and vegetarians. 

Although a lower intake of protein and iron can be more prominent in plant based people. 

Even though vegans and vegetarians do not consume much dietary carnitine, they can simply rely on endogenous carnitine production and skip the supplementation.

Just ensure that your general diet is adequate in protein, iron, vitamin C and B-vitamins so that the carnitine production process has all of its necessary ingredients. 

This article was written by Plant Nutrition and Wellness’s resident plant based sports dietitian and nutritionist Leah Higl. If you’re following a plant-based or vegan diet and want to make sure you’re meeting all your nutritional needs, optimise your performance and have an individualised nutrition plan created uniquely for you, get in touch today.


  1. National Institute of Health – Carnitine 
  2. Carnitine status of lactoovovegetarians and strict vegetarian adults and children
  3. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the body carnitine pool, skeletal muscle energy metabolism and physical performance in male vegetarians
  4. Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis: a randomised trial
  5. L-carnitine supplementation for the treatment of fatigue and depressed mood in cancer patients with carnitine deficiency: a preliminary analysis
  6. Acetyl-L-carnitine for the treatment of HIV lipoatrophy
  7. Carnitine replacement in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis
  8. Role of carnitine in disease
  9. Iron status of vegans and vegetarians 
  10. The role of carnitine and carnitine supplementation during exercise in man and in individuals with special needs
  11. Supplemental carnitine and exercise
  12. Carnitine and sports medicine: use or abuse?
  13. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease
  14. L-carnitine levels in the seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men: correlation with sperm quality
  15. Carnitine for the treatment of idiopathic asthenospermia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
  16. L-carnitine improves glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients
  17. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials
  18. Carnitine: Lessons from one hundred years of research
  19. l-Carnitine in omnivorous diets induces an atherogenic gut microbial pathway in humans


Lectins Myths: Are They Harmful To Your Health?

Lectins are an “anti-nutrient” that have received a lot of media attention recently. Fad diet books cite this food component as one of the central causes of obesity, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune conditions.

I actually find this slightly ironic, because when we look at where lectins come from, they’re all from plant-based foods. But if we actually look at the statistics of how much Australian’s eat plant-based foods, 95% of adults aren’t actually meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations.

So the claims that lectins are the cause of all of these diseases already isn’t making sense (1).

In this article we take a look at some of the lectins myths – are they harmful, should we avoid them and do they cause inflammation.

What are lectins?

Lectins are a protein found in plant foods that bind to carbohydrates. They resist being broken down in the gut and are stable in acidic environments (such as our stomach). This is actually a feature that helps to protect lectic-containing plants in nature (2).

What foods contain lectins?

Lectins are found in varying amounts in most plants. This includes beans, pulses, grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts, coffee, chocolate some herbs and spices. Pulses (think chickpeas, lentils, kidney beans) and grains (like rice and quinoa) contain the highest amount compared with other foods.


Why are they a problem?

When consumed, lectins can cause negative side effects. One of the most commonly reported reaction is found when eating raw or uncooked kidney beans. Kidney beans contain a type of lectic called phytohaemagglutinin. Ingestion of this can cause red blood cells to clump together as well as nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and diarrhea (3).

Lectins have also been shown to interfere with the absorption of minerals including iron, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc.

Some research has also indicated that they may bind to the cells lining the digestive tract. Over time, this may effect the intestinal flora and is theorized to play a role in inflammatory conditions such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis (3,4).


That sounds pretty bad, should I be worried?

Unsurprisingly, these theories have fuelled the profits of books and enzyme supplements from the anti-lectin movement. There is very limited research in humans about the number of active lectins consumed in the diet and their long term health effects.

Lectins in foods are most often studied in developing countries where there is high levels of malnutrition, limited cooking facilities and lack of dietary variety (5,6).

There are different forms of lectins found in different foods. The reactions people have to them vary significantly.

Some people with digestive conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome may be more likely to experience some negative symptoms from lectins and other anti-nutrients. However, a reasonable suggestion is simply to eat less of the food causing the digestive problem (ps. see a dietitian to help you with this).


Do they have any benefits?

Lectins can also act as a powerful antioxidant. Antioxidants help to protect cells from damaging unpaired electrons known as free radicals. This antinutrient can also help slow down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. This helps to stabilise blood sugar levels and keeps you fuller for longer.

Emerging research has also looked into the beneficial effect low amounts of lectins on stimulating gut cell growth in patients who are unable to eat for long periods (3,7)

Researchers are also investigating the effects that lectins may have in the treatment of cancer and even could be used in antitumor drugs in the future (8).

In addition to this, research time and time again continues to show the benefits of eating whole grains and legumes. People who consume more whole grains have improved cardiovascular health outcomes. Eating legumes such as chickpeas, lentils and kidney beans are linked with supporting healthy body weight and reducing CRP inflammatory markers.


Preparing food to minimise lectins

It is quite rare to eat foods with a high amount of lectins. This is due to them being most potent in the raw state of foods and these foods not typically consumed raw.

When foods are cooked, especially at high heat using a liquid such as cooking, stewing, boiling or soaking, this inactivates most lectins. They are also water-soluble and found on the outer surface of the food. This means, when these foods are cooked, the exposure to water removes the lectins.

The body also has a fantastic ability to produce enzymes during digestion that helps to break them down.

When cooking beans in a crock pot, use canned beans or boil them for at least 30 minutes before putting in the crockpot.


The bottom line

Just don’t eat grains and legumes raw.

Lectins are certainly harmful when consumed. However, given that they are denatured during cooking and the evidence against limiting these foods from our diet is very weak, it is definitely not something to be concerned about. Just make sure to cook your food!

There is strong evidence supporting the health benefits of pulses, grains, nuts, fruits and vegetables (i.e even in foods where lectins are found). If removed in a “lectin-free” diet, this could potentially lead to nutritional deficiencies.

If you’re following a plant-based or vegan diet and experiencing digestive upset, take control and apply to work with one of our expert plant-based dietitians. .



1. 4364.0.55.001 – National Health Survey: First Results, 2014-15. (2020). Retrieved 3 February 2020, from

2. Peumans, W., & Van Damme, E. (1995). Lectins as Plant Defense Proteins. Plant Physiology, 109(2), 347-352. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.2.347

3.Vasconcelos, I., & Oliveira, J. (2004). Antinutritional properties of plant lectins. Toxicon, 44(4), 385-403. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.05.005

4. Freed, D. (1999). Do dietary lectins cause disease?. BMJ, 318(7190), 1023-1024. doi: 10.1136/bmj.318.7190.1023

5. Gibson, R., Bailey, K., Gibbs, M., & Ferguson, E. (2010). A Review of Phytate, Iron, Zinc, and Calcium Concentrations in Plant-Based Complementary Foods Used in Low-Income Countries and Implications for Bioavailability. Food And Nutrition Bulletin, 31(2_suppl2), S134-S146. doi: 10.1177/15648265100312s206

6. Roos, N., Sørensen, J., Sørensen, H., Rasmussen, S., Briend, A., Yang, Z., & Huffman, S. (2012). Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 9, 47-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00449.x

7. Liu, Z., Luo, Y., Zhou, T., & Zhang, W. (2013). Could plant lectins become promising anti-tumour drugs for causing autophagic cell death?. Cell Proliferation, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/cpr.12054

8.Sarup Singh, R., Preet Kaur, H., & Rakesh Kanwar, J. (2016). Mushroom Lectins as Promising Anticancer Substances. Current Protein & Peptide Science, 17(8), 797-807. doi: 10.2174/1389203717666160226144741